Using Qingpu county in Shanghai as a case study, this paper shows how in the late 1950s, political issues turned prevention and cure of schistosomiasis in Jiangnan into a highly politicized campaign in which the entire population participated. The demand to complete the political mission in the shortest possible time led to constant “technical innovation” in the medical field, but this innovation was highly risky. As the course of medical treatment was shortened repeatedly, the danger to patients due to side effects grew increasingly severe. At the same time, conflicts arose between the campaign and the needs of agricultural production, leading to some passive resistance. This directly affected the realization of the government’s political goals and the result was a battle over the bodies of patients. Local medical personnel and production teams could not avoid being drawn into this battle.